1349 - 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt Germany.
1556 - Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was burned at the stake at Oxford after retracting the last of seven recantations that same day.
1788 - Almost the entire city of New Orleans, LA, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were destroyed.
1790 - Thomas Jefferson reported to U.S. President George Washington as the new secretary of state.
1804 - The French civil code, the Code Napoleon, was adopted.
1824 - A fire at a Cairo ammunitions dump killed 4,000 horses.
1826 - The Rensselaer School in Troy, NY, was incorporated. The school became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and was the first engineering college in the U.S.
1835 - Charles Darwin & Mariano Gonzales met at Portillo Pass.
1851 - Emperor Tu Duc ordered that Christian priests be put to death.
1851 - Yosemite Valley was discovered in California.
1857 - An earthquake hit Tokyo killing about 107,000.
1858 - British forces in India lift the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.
1859 - In Philadelphia, the first Zoological Society was incorporated.
1868 - The Sorosos club for professional women was formed in New York City by Jennie June. It was the first of its kind.
1871 - Journalist Henry M Stanley began his famous expedition to Africa.
1902 - Romain Roland’s play “The 4th of July” premiered in Paris.
1902 - In New York, three Park Avenue mansions were destroyed when a subway tunnel roof caved in.
1904 - The British Parliament vetoed a proposal to send Chinese workers to Transvaal.
1905 - Sterilization legislation was passed in the State of Pennsylvania. The governor vetoed the measure.
1906 - Ohio passed a law that prohibited hazing by fraternities after two fatalities.
1907 - The U.S. Marines landed in Honduras to protect American interests in the war with Nicaragua.
1907 - The first Parliament of Transvaal met in Pretoria.
1908 - A passenger was carried in a bi-plane for the first time by Henri Farman of France.
1909 - Russia withdrew its support for Serbia and recognized the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Serbia accepted Austrian control over Bosnia-Herzegovina on March 31, 1909.