1741 - Frederick II of Prussia defeated Maria Theresa’s forces at Mollwitz and conquered Silesia.
1790 - The U.S. patent system was established.
1809 - Austria declared war on France and its forces entered Bavaria.
1814 - Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Toulouse by the British and the Spanish. The defeat led to his abdication and exile to Elba.
1825 - The first hotel opened in Hawaii.
1849 - Walter Hunt patented the safety pin. He sold the rights for $100.
1854 - The constitution of the Orange Free State in south Africa was proclaimed.
1862 - Union forces began the bombardment of Fort Pulaski in Georgia along the Tybee River.
1865 - During the American Civil War, at Appomattox, General Robert E. Lee issued his last order.
1866 - The American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was incorporated.
1902 - South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
1912 - The Titanic set sail from Southampton, England.
1916 - The Professional Golfers Association (PGA) held its first championship tournament.
1919 - In Mexico, revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata was killed by government troops.
1922 - The Genoa Conference opened. The meeting was used to discuss the reconstruction of Europe after World War I.
1925 - F. Scott Fitzgerald published “The Great Gatsby” for the first time.
1930 - The first synthetic rubber was produced.
1932 - Paul von Hindenburg was elected president of Germany with 19 million votes. Adolf Hitler came in second with 13 million votes.
1938 - Germany annexed Austria after Austrians had voted in a referundum to merge with Germany.
1941 - In World War II, U.S. troops occupied Greenland to prevent Nazi infiltration.
1941 - Ford Motor Co. became the last major automaker to recognize the United Auto Workers as the representative for its workers.
1944 - Russian troops recaptured Odessa from the Germans.
1945 - German Me 262 jet fighters shot down ten U.S. bombers near Berlin.
1953 - Warner Bros. released “House of Wax.” It was the first 3-D movie to be released by a major Hollywood studio.